being, conceptosphere, Sanskrit, Indian philosophy, sat, bhava


The article is devoted to the study of the etymology and semantic connotations of Sanskrit terms: sat, bhāva, sambhava, bhavitṛ, bhavya, bhavat, bhūti, bhūta, sarvabhūta, bhavaka, sattva, sattā, saṃvṛtti, jāstāmātā sampatti, vartamāna, āvitta, āvinna as lexical representatives of the conceptosphere of being in the Sanskrit-English dictionary of Monier-Williams. The method of conceptual analysis is implemented based on the assumption of the determining influence of language culture on the content and nature of philosophical creativity. This study is only the first stage of the project to reveal the way of interpreting "being" in the history of Indian philosophy. The key semantic connotations of this concept in the Monier-Williams English-Sanskrit dictionary are revealed.

The semantic connection of the concept of "being" with the concepts: "life" and "time" is defined. In this context, "to live" is to be "someone" in order to embrace "one's place" and play "one's role" that can provide "possession" for "subsistence", and the relationship between "being" and "time" is the concreteness of the existing event that is happening or has happened and belonging to the future that is about to happen. Although we do not trace a transparent connection between the concepts of "being" and "space" in Sanskrit, there are reasons to believe that the first of all, the etymology of the terms of our chosen conceptosphere clearly presents the interpretation of being as a long and a spatially defined location.

Noticeable is the fact that the connection between the interpretation of the concept of "being" in Sanskrit and the ethical concept of "good" and aesthetic "beauty" we trace only in terms derived from as and bhū, and at the same time only the terms sat and bhava can be translated as "truth", and the meaning of "essence" we find only in the translation of the terms sat and sattva. This explains the fact why the term sat is considered as close as possible to the "Western" interpretation of the concept of "being".

It has been suggested that the polysemy of lexical representatives of the concept of being in Sanskrit and the complexity and variability of the grammar compliance of this language can be interpreted as an obstacle to the extreme problematization of this concept.


Bokal H. Prospects of comparative philosophy and paradigm approach in native history of philosophy// Bulletin of Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv. Philosophy. Political Science. – №. 2(121), 2016. – P. 5-8.

Burba D. V. Orthographic Transcription of Sanskrit Names and Terms in Ukrainian// The World of the Orient, – № 1, 2018. – P. 104-123.

Hnatovs'ka H. History of Oriental Philosophy: An Introduction to Indian Philosophy. Tutorial. -K.: Frako Pak, 2021. – 98 p.

Danylov D. Transformation of the concept of "dhyāna" in the teachings of yoga. – K.: Dukh i litera, 2020. – 192 р.

Zavhorodniy Yu. Indian philosophy and the concept of liberation (mokṣa) in the "MānavaDharmaśāstra"// Sententiae, № 2, 2017. – Р. 117-131.

Strelkova A. Buddhism: Рhilosophy of Еmptiness – K. Vydavnychyy dim ''Kyyevo-Mohylyans'ka akademiya'' 2015. – 403 s.

Strelkova A. Yu. Spivvidnoshennya buttya, nebuttya ta porozhnechi v buddiys'kiy ontolohiyi // Aktual'ni problemy dukhovnosti. – № 14. 2013. – Р. 60-69.

Aubenque P. The Problem of Being in Aristotle, PUF, 2005. – 576 р.

Chapple C.-K. Yoga and the Luminous: Patañjali's Spiritual Path to Freedom, New York: State University of New York Press, 2008. – 320 р.

Grassmann H. Wörterbuch zum Rig-Veda. 3. Aufl. Wiesbaden: Reichert, 1996 – 1743 р.

Heidegger M. Einfuhrung in die Metaphysik, Tubingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag, 1953. – 157 р.

Hnatovska H. Conceptual analysis method in the historical and philosophical study of Indian spiritual heritage // International Scientific Conference "The Days of Science of the Faculty of Philosophy – 2021", 2021: – Р. 14-23.

Hnatovska H. The Image of Philosophy in Indian Culture: Etymology and Untranslatability of Terms. // Future Human Image, – Volume 13, 2020. – Р. 14-16.

Jha V.N. Classical Indian Philosophy of Education: A Pedagogic Approach to Ultimate Meaning and Purpose in Human Existence// Ultimate Reality and Meaning 2020. – Р.107-116.

Monier-Williams M. A sanskrit-english dictionary: etymologically and philologically arranged with special reference to cognate indo-european languages, Oxford, 1899. – 1333 р.

Pinchard A. Tad as a predicate in vedic // 6th International Vedic Workshop – 2014, Preliminary edition. – Р. 1-15.

Rai A.-K. The concept of dharma // Journal of East West Thought, Vol. 8, № 1, 2018. – Р 19-25.

Sileikis S. Being and becoming in nyaya-vaisesika// Acta orient alia vilnensia, № 5. 2004. – Р. 185-196

Stephen P. Epistemology in Classical Indian Philosophy URL: https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2019/entries/epistemology-india/ (дата звернення: 01.08.2021).

Whicher I. The Integrity of the Yoga Darsana: A Reconsideration of Classical Yoga, New York: State University of New York Press, 1998. – 438 р.

Yoga: India's Philosophy of Meditation. Edited by G. Larsen and R. S. Bhattaracharya. // Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies, Volume XII, Dehli, 2011. – 784 р.



How to Cite

Hnatovska Н. (2022). LEXICAL REPRESENTATIVES OF THE CONCEPT OF "BEING" IN THE MONIER-WILLIAMS ENGLISH-SANSKRIT DICTIONARY. Bulletin of Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv. Philosophy, 1(6), 10-15. https://doi.org/10.17721/2523-4064.2022/6-2/13